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What Entities are Covered by Equal Employment Opportunity Laws?

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that protects individuals from employment discrimination by private employers, unions, employment agencies, and government agencies.  Established in 1964 by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, it aims to eliminate job discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, and/or disability. 

EEOC enforces the following statutes:

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or retaliation. It covers all employers and employment agencies with 15 or more employees; unions with 15 or more members; and all federal, state and local government agencies.

 

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), which protects individuals who are at least 40 years old from employment discrimination. It covers private employers with 20 or more employees; all federal, state and local government agencies; employment agencies that serve covered employers; and unions with 25 or more members.

 
 

Equal Pay Act (EPA), which prohibits sex-based wage discrimination -- paying different wages to men and women performing substantially equal work under similar working conditions. It covers all employees who are covered by the minimum wage law.

   

Section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which protects people with disabilities in the federal sector. It prohibits Federal agencies from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities, and it requires agencies to make reasonable accommodations to the special needs of persons with disabilities.

 
   

Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which protects qualified applicants with disabilities. It covers all employers and employment agencies with 15 or more employees, unions with 15 or more members, and state and local government agencies.

   

Civil Rights Act of 1991, which provides monetary compensation in cases of intentional discrimination.

   

All federal equal employment opportunity rules, regulations, and policies.